How to study in medical school armin kamyab pdf


    How to Study in Medical School provides a thorough and comprehensive method for studying the Basic Sciences in medical school and leaves no detail behind. PDF HOW TO STUDY IN MEDICAL SCHOOL ARMIN KAMYAB - In this site isn`t the same as a solution manual you download in a book store or download off the web. How To Study In Medical School 2nd Edition By Armin Kamyab - [Free] How To Study In. Medical School 2nd Edition By Armin Kamyab [PDF] [EPUB] -. HOW TO .

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    How To Study In Medical School Armin Kamyab Pdf

    Download PDF, ePub Armin Kamyab Languange Used - ma, 01 apr 17 GMT. How to Study in Medical School, 2Nd Edition ebook by Armin. This item:How to Study in Medical School, 2nd Edition by Armin Kamyab . on Armin's study techniques initially, but after about a year into medical school and I . How to Study in Medical School, 2Nd Edition by Armin Kamyab is Teaching & Learning #1 best affairs book in its class! How to Abstraction in.

    I thought I'd make a thread to draw attention to what I felt was very helpful information. The book is essentially a study method for getting through the basic science years with as much efficiency as possible. Maybe some of the students at AUC can chime in on their feelings of how effective this method would be. It worked for the author when he was going through medical school, and it makes sense to me so I plan to use his method when I start at AUC in January, I can't take any credit for any of this. It's all in the book. I am not affiliated with this author in any way. I literally did a google search about a week ago for medical school study guides and found the book. Here it is. I hope you find it as helpful as I did. Every week day the classes will cover a certain amount of material from the text book.

    Armin Kamyab, MD, has literally written the book on how to study for medical school, and he strongly recommends these active note-taking techniques. Summaries are crucial for you to understand the big-picture concepts covered in your lectures, and additional details added later will guarantee that you have a solid grasp of the required materials. Study Buddies In medical school, everyone is taking the same classes, and though competition is fierce, finding like-minded classmates with whom to form a study group can add value to your independent study habits.

    Quiz each other, teach each other, fill in gaps in knowledge, and celebrate your success as you learn the materials. A little levity and fun will give you the energy to return to your studies with a clear mind.

    Keep those rewards healthy and energizing booze and greasy food taste great but will they really nourish your mind? Know that medical schools has invested a great amount of time, money, and energy just to recruit you into their programs. No one wants to see you fail out of medical school. Programs are in place for your success, and all you have to do is seek them out. If you allow yourself the space to be brilliant and brave, medical school itself will be the ultimate reward.

    Write easily a. No more than pages per weekday, per weekend day m. Read on computer to make sure argument is clear, fix obvious errors 2. Read a printed copy out loud 3.

    Sanity Pass - check overall flow and root out last errors. Cal Newport Blog 1. Do less, well. Only have projects that you schedule. You can have other experiments learning to carve, paint, etc. Successful people dont do a lot, they do a few things really well. Don't print out powerpoints. Load them up in PP and take notes at the bottom of the slides then consolidate after and print in notes view.

    For tough reading assignments where keeping up momentum is important. Preread using the dot, dash method then take notes. Also preread assignement and look up review articles on Google so you have reference points for the assignement i.

    Dot's for important points ii. Dashes for supporting information 4. Active review lecture ideas out loud without notes ii. Take notes in a format read for active review 1. Sample problems with problem separated out 2. QEC method iii. Ask questions immediately iv. Schedule two review times during the week for the new material v. Use an autopilot schedule same material at the same times 5.

    Learning complicated subjects requires the expenditure of lots of uncomfortable and difficult hard focus. Build a system that respects this mental labor. Adaptable students constantly question why theyre studying the way they are, and then seek concrete feedback on whether their hypothesis is correct. Theyre not afraid to make informed changes, again and again and again. Use an autopilot schedule! Schedule regularly recurring tasks for the same time each week 8. Take a pen, a good notebook and find and inspiring space to think!

    Acing problems sets i. Set aside hours to do the easy problems and attempt the hard ones ii. Give them a second shot and think about the hard ones away from your desk.

    Go to a study group not last minute iv. Attend office hours Be a Zen-Valdictorian i. Underschedule ii. Focus Single major, single extracurricular activity Context matters find inspiring places to study.

    Consider adventure studying. During hiking ii. At a quiet lounge. Holistic Learning by Scott Young Create networks of knowledge, not lists.

    Studying should be a time to build Constructs think of a building by first creating a model when knowledge is limited and then replacing the model with the bricks of knowledge. The construct is the coherent whole. Studying should either be exploratory or creative. The idea is to "create vast webs of interlinked ideas.

    Visceralize Link knowledge via all your senses. Create strong imagry for abstract concepts. What does something feel like? Use metaphone another way of linking while building a good construct. Explore explore your models and constructs and fill in missing holes. Look for gaps in knowledge and insecure foundations.

    If you have studied a passage multiple times and still don't remember, you don't have a construct. Work on visceralizing, creating metaphors or exploring to increase linkage and build your model or construct.

    What don't I know about topic? What do I need to learn? How can I learn what I need to learn? How will I know when I have learnt it adequately? Can you explain it? Consult curricula Study with friends and compare depth and breadth of knowledge Blooms Taxonomy Levels of knowledge make sure you can engage in the all the levels of.

    Ask questions Obtain an overview Write down what you already know as a brainstorm or concept map Note key questions you should be able to answers by the end of your learning What do you need to learn? During studying: Dont write down things verbatim Look for links to other knowledge Write down key words After studying Tidy up notes Did you learn what you needed?

    Rewrite your network of key information Can you put away your notes and answer questions that you identified at the start? Can you explain what you learned to someone else? Learn by doing!

    [DOWNLOAD] PDFHow to Study in Medical School by M.D., Armin Kamyab (2…

    Make notes in such a way so that when you review you don't simply read them. Bottom quarter for 1 sentence summary Left hand column 2 inches for key words Concept Mapping Note: It can take up to 3 months to get used to any particular note taking method Learning from Lectures.

    Preparation minutes to read up on a topic Label paper carefully Sit where you can concentrate best up front! Write down what you understand rather than content of slides If the lecture is terrible, look up the lecture objectives and open the appropriate book Learning from books Work alone and in quiet Take notes while reading Distill key information and make sure the notes will require active review later on.

    Learning from the Internet Limit to new articles, English, Core Clinical Journals Clinical Skills Three Elements for mastery Sensory Motor - Technical skill Simulation, Practice, Review, Show for feedback, teach Ask patient for help in practicing skills Give name Explain what you intend to do Explain that the interview is for education only Explain that refusal will not affect the patient's treatment Explain confidentiality Issues Tell how long its going to take Offer to come back if patient is tired, unwell or busy Understanding Understand underlying biological principles, anatomy, physiology, physics Clinical reasoning Making sense of findings to make diagnosis Study sheets should contain these three aspects Be an active learner in the wards get involved go and find it!

    Ask nurses!! Stay late if someone offers to teach you Look awake and attentive, dress smartly, make the first move, accept rejection, ask for feedback Learning opportunities Drug charts Look over everyone's drug chart and look up unknown drugs Practice writing down drug treatments for common illnesses.

    Get comment from doctors or pharmacist!

    Drug rounds learn medications by following nurses Practical skills - Help nurses take blood pressure, pulse and temp Physiotherapy Check it out Radiology read about it then go ask to ask to come along and watch Communication Skills Effective communication leads to empathetic, effective, efficient and satisfying interviews for all concerned.

    Communicate clearly, sensitively and effectively. Explore some of the philosophical and ethical positions around being a doctor become a humanist. Skill Inventory How good are you at listening? Do people feel comfortable with you?

    How to Study in Medical School

    How good are ou at trying to put yourself in someone else's shoes? How comfortable are you with silence? How able are you to listen to people's feelings about their distress?

    How able are you to listen to people's feelings about their anger? How good are you at explaining things to people? How good are you at recounting events or telling stories? Could you summarize clearly and accurately something you have just heard or read? Are you able to tell someone honestly what you think when you know the truth may offend, upset or hurt them?

    Are you able to negotiate options when there is disagreement? Have someone you trust to answer the above questions for you. See rest of How to Succeed at Medical School prior to 3rd year if necessary. Working in Groups Find and clarify rolls everyone tends to be good in multiple rolls but look for missing pieces: Resource investigator Four stages of team development Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing Make sure goals are concrete Work hard to ensure that everyone has input in final product Ensure similar levels of prior knowledge Make sure goals are owned by everyone Make sure you are actively learning in the group by asking questions Consider setting ground rules for study sessions Brainstorm Review of learning objectives Make individual questions and model answers as group Ask questions, make links, elaborate knowledge Is debate welcomed?

    How structured is the process? Would more structure help? What does group do to maximize motivation of its members? If there is conflict, consider taking on a facilitative role. Restate opionions, find common ground, move toward brainstorming. Problem Based Learning Usually contains a chair, a tutor and a scribe.

    The chair guides the group through the steps and insures everyone has a say. The scribe can be a real motivator based on how notes are taken on the whiteboard use colors, concept maps, flow diagrams as they drive innovation more than lists. The tutor is only a facilitator, challenging and nudging conversation. Sundry Advise by Ben Robison 1. Read the notes on how to study and developing memory see below , take them as a starting point, especially for classes you find difficult.

    They represent a philosophy of thinking and learning that are logical and helpful. Write every word that comes out of your instructors mouth. Be prepared to work as hard for this class as any other course you take. Finish your lab write ups several days before they are due and check them with the T. Dont complain 4.

    Preread before lectures. It should take 20 minutes max and do you a world of good. Be prepared to study really hard 2nd year. Let this process transform you.

    Find something to love in each and every subject you take. Its your life, might as well enjoy it. Also intelligence is about finding something interesting in all things whether by will or by natural inclination. You can develop curiosity for all things. Focus on content, not on grades.

    Grades will come. If you get a poor grade, focus even more on content and not on grades. Eat well. There IS time. Premed is preparation for the habits you will take into medical school. Use it to perfect them. Some teachers change the way you think. It will quite possibly and most likely hurt. Keep at it. Keep up and do the work with intensity and interest.

    The mind you are creating will help you. Translate lectures into your own words A little Buddhist perspective during a week with two exams, two quizzes and a lab report never hurt anyone.

    It's all about a peaceful and steady mind, loving-kindness for others and compassionate action. Both authors reflect quite a bit on current neuroscience. Remember, you are unique, interesting and exciting and are going into a fascinating field of endeavor.

    You have a whole new world opening up before you. Learn to enjoy difficult. Learn to enjoy the projects that are only pleasurable as you complete them. Learn to accept the temporary frustration of not understanding. Being a good doctor means being compassionate, empathetic, legitimate, authentic, industrious and happy.

    Start now by helping a colleague, teacher, friend or stranger. Take chemistry lab with Chemistry II or during the summer. Same for organic chemistry lab. Start MCAT preparation six months before the exam. Study hard and intelligently. Use the Exam Krackers books and audio unless you need the structure of a class, than take the Kaplan class but still check out the EK books.

    From Atul Gawande: Dont complain, 2. Ask unscripted questions, 3. Count something, 4. Write something, 5. Change Real change is hard. This is what you are doing. Learn to enjoy it. Learn to enjoy reading science. Do it every day. Start to figure out the question that will keep you up at night. This will help focus you and can help you decide about what volunteer and research work to take on.

    Do as much research and volunteering as you can. Find out what you really like about medicine. Create semester goals. Each week create new goals based on last week's work and the semester goals. Each morning, take five minutes to update your calendar and create a work schedule for the day based on the week's goals.

    Set aside regular study times for each of your subjects. Reverse Engineer your schedule. How to Memorize Selections from Memory: Develop interest in subject through application of will. The basic steps for remembering are: Whatever can be done in this direction by means of attention, inspired by interest, may be duplicated by attention directed by will. In other words, the desire to accomplish the task adds and creates an artificial interest just as effective as the natural feeling.

    Give to the thing that you wish to memorize, as great a degree of concentrated attention as possible. We have explained the reason for this advice in many places in the book. The degree of concentrated attention bestowed upon the object under consideration, determines the strength, clearness and depth of the impression received and stored away in the subconsciousness.

    The character of these stored away impressions determines the degree of ease in remembrance and recollection. In considering an object to be memorized, endeavor to obtain the impressions through as many faculties and senses as possible.

    The reason for this advice should be apparent to you, if you have carefully read the preceding chapters. An impression received through both sound and sight is doubly as strong as one received through but one of these channels. You may remember a name, or word, either by having seen it in writing or print; or else by reason of having heard it; but if you have both seen and heard it you have a double impression, and possess two possible ways of reviving the impression.

    You are able to remember an orange by reason of having seen it, smelt it, felt it and tasted it, and having heard its name pronounced. Endeavor to know a thing from as many sense impressions as possibleuse the eye to assist ear-impressions; and the ear to assist in eye-impressions. See the thing from as many angles as possible. Sense impressions may be strengthened by exercising the particular faculty through which the weak impressions are received. You will find that either your eye memory is better than your ear memory, or vice versa.

    The remedy lies in exercising the weaker faculty, so as to bring it up to the standard of the stronger. The chapters of eye and ear training will help you along these lines.

    The same rule applies to the several phases of memorydevelop the weak ones, and the strong ones will take care of themselves. The only way to develop a sense or faculty is to intelligently train, exercise and use it. Use, exercise and practice will work miracles in this direction. Make your first impression strong and firm enough to serve as a basis for subsequent ones. Get into the habit of fixing a clear, strong impression of a thing to be considered, from the first.

    Otherwise you are trying to build up a large structure upon a poor foundation. Each time you revive an impression you deepen it, but if you have only a dim impression to begin with, the deepened impressions will not include details omitted in the first one. It is like taking a good sharp negative of a picture that you intend to enlarge afterward. The details lacking in the small picture will not appear in the enlargement; but those that do appear in the small one, will be enlarged with the picture.

    Revive your impressions frequently and thus deepen them. You will know more of a picture by seeing it a few minutes every day for a week, than you would by spending several hours before it at one time. So it is with the memory. By recalling an impression a number of times, you fix it indelibly in your mind in such a way that it may be readily found when needed.

    Such impressions are like favorite tools which you need every little while they are not apt to be mislaid as are those which are but seldom used. Use your imagination in "going over" a thing that you wish to remember. If you are studying a thing, you will find that this "going over" in your imagination will help you materially in disclosing the things that you have not remembered about it. By thus recognizing your weak points of memory, you may be able to pick up the missing details when you study the object itself the next time.

    Use your memory and place confidence in it. One of the important things in the cultivation of the memory is the actual use of it. Begin to trust it a little, and then more, and then still more, and it will rise to the occasion. The man who has to tie a string around his finger in order to remember certain things, soon begins to cease to use his memory, and in the end forgets to remember the string, or what it is for.

    There are many details, of course, with which it is folly to charge the memory, but one should never allow his memory to fall into disuse. If you are in an occupation in which the work is done by mechanical helps, then you should exercise the memory by learning verses, or other things, in order to keep it in active practice.

    Do not allow your memory to atrophy. Establish as many associations for an impression, as possible. If you have studied the preceding chapters, you will recognize the value of this point. Association is memory's method of indexing and cross-indexing.

    Each association renders it easier to remember or recollect the thing. Each association gives you another string to your mental bow. Endeavor to associate a new bit of knowledge with something already known by, and familiar to you. In this way to avoid the danger of having the thing isolated and alone in your mindwithout a label, or index number and name, connect your object or thought to be remembered with other objects or thoughts, by the association of contiguity in space and time, and by relationship of kind, resemblance or opposite-ness.

    Sometimes the latter is very useful, as in the case of the man who said that ''Smith reminds me so much of Brownhe's so different. In the same way, one is often able to recollect names by slowly running over the alphabet, with a pencil, until the sight of the capital first letter of the name brings the memory of those following itthis, however, only when the name has previously been memorized by sight. In the same way the first few notes of a musical selection will enable you to remember the whole air; or the first words of a sentence, the entire speech or selection following it.

    In trying to remember a thing which has escaped you, you will find it helpful to think of something associated with that thing, even remotely. A little practice will enable you to recollect the thing along the lines of the faintest association or clue. Some men are adept memory detectives, following this plan. The "loose end" in memory is all the expert requires. Any associations furnish these loose ends. An interesting and important fact to remember in this connection is that if you have some one thing that tends to escape your memory, you may counteract the trouble by noting the associated things that have previously served to bring it into mind with you.

    The associated thing once noted, may thereafter be used as a loose end with which to unwind the elusive fact or impression. This idea of association la quite fascinating when you begin to employ it in your memory exercises and work.

    And you will find many little methods of using it. But always use natural association, and avoid the temptation of endeavoring to tie your memory up with the red-tape of the artificial systems. Group your impressions. This is but a form of association, but is very important. If you can arrange your bits of knowledge and fact into logical groups, you will always be master of your subject. By associating your knowledge with other knowledge along the same general lines, both by resemblances and by opposites, you will be able to find what you need just when you need it.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had a mind trained along these lines. He said that his memory was like a large case of small drawers and pigeon-holes, in which he filed his information according to its kind. In order to do this he used the methods mentioned in this book of comparing the new thing with the old ones, and then deciding into which group it naturally fitted.

    This is largely a matter of practice and knack, but it may be acquired by a little thought and care, aided by practice. And it will repay one well for the trouble in acquiring it. The following table will be found useful in classifying objects, ideas, facts, etc. The table is to be used in the line of questions addressed to oneself regarding the thing under consideration.

    It somewhat resembles the table of questions given in Chapter XVII, of this book, but has the advantage of brevity. Memorize this table and use it. You will be delighted at the results, after you have caught the knack of applying it.

    Ask yourself the following questions regarding the thing under consideration. It will draw out many bits of information and associated knowledge in your mind: While the above Seven Queries are given you as a means of acquiring clear impressions and associations, they will also serve as a Magic Key to Knowledge, if you use them intelligently. If you can answer these questions regarding anything, you will know a great deal about that particular thing.

    And after you have answered them. Try them on some one thingyou cannot understand them otherwise, unless you have a very good imagination. Develop Attention: In order that a thing may be remembered, it must be impressed clearly upon the mind in the first place; and that in order to obtain a clear impression there must be a manifestation of attention.

    But there is this important point to be remembered, that interest may be developed by voluntary attention bestowed and held upon an object. Things that are originally lacking in sufficient interest to attract the involuntary attention may develop a secondary interest if the voluntary attention be placed upon and held upon them.

    As Halleck says on this point: Here cultivated minds show their especial superiority, for the attention which they are able to give generally ends in finding a pearl in the most uninteresting looking oyster. When an object necessarily loses interest from one point of view, such minds discover in it new attributes. The essence of genius is to present an old thing in new ways, whether it be some force in nature or some aspect of humanity.

    This because the whole thing consists so largely in the use of the will, and by faithful practice and persistent application.

    Study Habits for Medical School

    The first requisite is the determination to use the will. You must argue it out with yourself, until you become convinced that it is necessary and desirable for you to acquire the art of voluntary attention you must convince yourself beyond reasonable doubt. This is the first step and one more difficult than it would seem at first sight. The principal difficulty in it lies in the fact that to do the thing you must do some active earnest thinking, and the majority of people are too lazy to indulge in such mental effort.

    Having mastered this first step, you must induce a strong burning desire to acquire the art of voluntary attentionyou must learn to want it hard. In this way you induce a condition of interest and attractiveness where it was previously lacking. Third and last, you must hold your will firmly and persistently to the task, and practice faithfully. A simple exercise is to pick a house and be able to describe exactly in Detail! There are three general rules that may be given in this matter of bestowing the voluntary attention in the direction of actually seeing things, instead of merely looking at them.

    Make yourself take an interest in the thing. See it as if you were taking note of it in order to repeat its details to a friendthis will force you to "take notice. Give to your subconscious a mental command to take note of what you are looking atsay to it; "Here, you take note of this and remember it for me!

    Therefore, it has truly been said that: Develop Associations: It will be seen that it is of great importance that we correlate our impressions with those preceding and following. The more closely knitted together our impressions are, the more closely will they cohere, and the greater will be the facility of remembering or recollecting them. We should endeavor to form our impressions of things so that they will be associated with other impressions, in time and space.

    Every other thing that is associated in the mind. The habit of correct associationthat is, connecting facts in the mind according to their true relations, and to the manner in which they tend to illustrate each other, is one of the principle means of improving the memory, particularly that kind of memory which is an essential quality of a cultivated mindnamely, that which is founded not upon incidental connections, but on true and important relations.

    Memory of Sense Impressions mostly sight and sound: Memory of Ideas facts, events, thoughts, lines of reasoning, etc. Training the eye: Before the memory can be stored with sight impressionsbefore the mind can recollect or remember such impressionsthe eye must be used under the direction of the attention. Perception, to achieve satisfactory results, must summon the will to its aid to concentrate the attention.

    Only the smallest part of what falls upon our senses at any time is actually perceived. Walk by shop windows and try to remember as many elements in the window as you can.

    It is all a matter of attention, interest natural or induced and practice. Begin with a set of dominoes, if you like, and try to remember the spots on one of them rapidly glanced atthen twothen three.

    By increasing the number gradually, you will attain a power of perception and a memory of sight-impressions that will appear almost marvelous. And not only will you begin to remember dominoes, but you will also be able to perceive and remember thousands of little details of interest, in everything, that have heretofore escaped your notice. The principle is very simple, but the results that may be obtained by practice are wonderful.

    The trouble with most of you is that you have been looking without seeinggazing but not observing. The objects around you have been out of your mental focus. If you will but change your mental focus, by means of will and attention, you will be able to cure yourself of the careless methods of seeing and observing that have been hindrances to your success. You have been blaming it on your memory, but the fault is with your perception.

    How can the memory remember, when it is not given anything in the way of clear impressions? You have been like young infants in this matter now it is time for you to begin to '' sit up and take notice,'' no matter how old you may be.

    The whole thing in a nut-shell is this: In order to remember the things that pass before your sight, you must begin to see with your. Let the impression get beyond your retina and into your mind. If you will do this, you will find that memory will "do the rest. Try to memorize words that are spoken to you in conversationa few sentences, or even one, at a time. You will find that the effort made to fasten the sentence on your memory will result in a concentration of the attention on the words of the speaker.

    Do the same thing when you are listening to a preacher, actor or lecturer. Pick out the first sentence for memorizing, and make up your mind that your memory will be as wax to receive the impression and as steel to retain it. Listen to the stray scraps of conversation that come to your ears while walking on the street, and endeavor to memorize a sentence or two, as if you were to repeat it later in the day.

    Study the various tones, expressions and inflections in the voices of persons speaking to youyou will find this most interesting and helpful. You will be surprised at the details that such analysis will reveal. Listen to the footsteps of different persons and endeavor to distinguish between themeach has its peculiarities.

    Get some one to read a line or two of poetry or prose to you, and then endeavor to remember it. A little practice of this kind will greatly develop the power of voluntary attention to sounds and spoken words. But above everything else, practice repeating the words and sounds that you have memorized, so far as is possiblefor by so doing you will get the mind into the habit of taking an interest in sound impressions.

    In this way you not only improve the sense of hearing, but also the faculty of remembering. If you will analyze, and boil down the above remarks and directions, you will find that the gist of the whole matter is that one should actually use, employ and exercise the mental faculty of hearing, actively and intelligently. Nature has a way of putting to sleep, or atrophying any faculty that is not used or exercised; and also of encouraging, developing and strengthening any faculty that is properly employed and exercised.

    In this you have the secret. Use it. If you will listen well, you will hear well and remember well that which you have heard. Specific types of memory: Told in the style of a true story about a Mr. X who successfully learns to remember names He made a study of voices, until he could classify them and analyze their characteristics. Then he found that he could hear names in a manner before impossible to him. That is, instead of merely catching a vague sound of a name, he would hear it so clearly and distinctly that a firm registration would be obtained on the records of his memory.

    He would repeat a name to himself, after hearing it, and would thus strengthen the impression. If he came across an unusual name, he would write it down several times, at the first opportunity, thus obtaining the benefit of a double sense impression, adding eye impression to ear impression. All this, of course, aroused his interest in the subject of names in general, which led him to the next step in his progress.

    Repeat name while looking intently at the person bearing it 2. Visualize the name, see the letters in minds eye 3. Associate with other well-remembered people of same name. Remember sound, visualize, remember form as in seeing the shapes of the numbers on a door then if you remember the door you remember the number Dates: It is not advisable to expend much mental effort in fastening each important detail of the day upon the mind, as it occurs; but there is an easier way that will accomplish the purpose, if one will but take a little trouble in that direction.

    We refer to the practice of reviewing the occurrences of each day, after the active work of the day is over. If you will give to the occurrences of each day a mental review in the evening, you will find that the act of reviewing will employ the attention to such an extent as to register the happenings in such a manner that they will be available if ever needed thereafter.

    It is akin to the filing of the business papers of the day, for possible future reference. Besides this advantage, these reviews will serve you well as a reminder of many little things of immediate importance which have escaped your recollection by reason of something that followed them in the field of attention. Thurlow Weed, a well-known politician of the last century, testifies to the efficacy of the above mentioned method, in his "Memoirs. Weed says: My memory was a sieve.

    I could remember nothing. Dates, names, appointments, faceseverything escaped me. I said to my wife, ' Catherine, I shall never make a successful politician, for I cannot remember, and that is a prime necessity of politicians. A politician who sees a man once should remember him forever. So when I came home that night I sat down alone and spent fifteen minutes trying silently to recall with accuracy the principal events of the day.

    I could remember but little at firstnow I remember that I could not then recall what I had for breakfast. After a few days' practice I found I could recall more. Events came back to me more minutely, more accurately, and more vividly than at first. After a fortnight or so of this, Catherine said 'why don't you relate to me the events of the day instead of recalling them to yourself? It would be interesting and my interest in it would be a stimulus to you.

    Every night, the last thing before retiring, I told her everything I could remember that had happened to me, or about me, during the day. I generally recalled the very dishes I had for breakfast, dinner and tea; the people I had seen, and what they had said; the editorials I had written for my paper, giving her a brief abstract of them; I mentioned all the letters I had seen and received, and the very language used, as nearly as possible; when I had walked or riddenI told her everything that had come within my observation.

    I found that I could say my lessons better and better every year, and instead of the practice growing irksome, it became a pleasure to go over again the events of the day. I am indebted to this discipline for a memory of unusual tenacity, and I recommend the practice to all who wish to store up facts, or expect to have much to do with influencing men. The habit of reviewing and "telling" the things that one perceives, does and thinks during the day, naturally sharpens the powers of future observation, attention and perception.

    If you are witnessing a thing, which you know that you will be called upon to describe to another person, you will instinctively apply your attention to it. The knowledge that you will be called upon for a description of a thing will give the zest of interest or necessity to it, which may be lacking otherwise. If you will. In this case the seeing and hearing has "a meaning" to you, and a purpose.

    In addition to this, the work of review establishes a desirable habit of mind. If you don't care to relate the occurrences to another personlearn to tell them to yourself in the evening.

    Play the part yourself. There is a valuable secret of memory imbedded in this chapterif you are wise enough to apply it. They are in a manner accidental, depending upon the order in which the objects present themselves to the mind.

    On the other hand, association by similarity is largely put in our own power; for we, in a measure, select those objects that are to be associated, and bring them together in the mind.

    Associate by similarity not contiguity 1. The answers are the associations! This matter of association by relation is one of the most important things in the whole subject of thought, and the degree of correct and efficient thinking depends materially upon it.

    It does not suffice us to merely "know" a thingwe must know where to find it when we want it. When we associate what is new with what most nearly resembles it in the mind already, we give it its proper place in our fabric of thought.

    Where did it come from or originate? What caused it? What history or record has it? What are its attributes, qualities and characteristics? What things can I most readily associate with it? What is it like! What is it good forhow may it be usedwhat can I do with it? What does it provewhat can be deduced from it? What are its natural resultswhat happens because of it? What is its future; and its natural or probable end or finish?

    What do I think of it, on the whole what are my general impressions regarding it? What do I know about it, in the way of general information? What have I heard about it, and from whom, and when?

    The more other facts that you manage to associate with any one fact, the more pegs will you have to hang your facts uponthe more "loose ends" will you have whereby to pull that fact into the field of consciousness the more cross indexes will you have whereby you may "run down" the fact when you need it.

    The more associations you attach to a fact, the more "meaning" does that fact have for you, and the more interest will be created regarding it in your mind. Moreover, by so doing, you make very probable the "automatic" or involuntary recollection of that fact when you are thinking of some of its associated subjects; that is, it will come into your mind naturally in connection with something elsein a "that reminds me" fashion.

    And the oftener that you are involuntarily "reminded" of it, the clearer and deeper does its impression become on the records of your memory. Another point to be remembered is that the future association of a fact depends very much upon your system of filing away facts. If you will think of this when endeavoring to store away a fact for future reference, you will be. File it away with the thing it most resembles, or to which it has the most familiar relationship.

    The child does this, involuntarilyit is nature's own way. For instance, the child sees a zebra, it files away that animal as "a donkey with stripes;" a giraffe as a "long-necked horse;" a camel as a "horse with long, crooked legs, long neck and humps on its back.

    The grown up children will do well to build similar connecting links of memory. Attach the new thing to some old familiar thing. It is easy when you once have the knack of it. The table of questions given a little farther back will bring to mind many connecting links. Use them. Words, speeches, poems, etc. Learn one line, review it 2. Learn 2nd line, review it 3. Review both together noting connections.

    Not only does this exercise and use develop the memory along the particular line of the faculty used, but also along every line and faculty. This is so because the exercise develops the power of concentration, and the use of the voluntary attention. We suggest that the student, who wishes to acquire a good memory for words, sentences, etc. Then let him memorize one verse of not over four to six lines to begin with. Let him learn this verse perfectly, line by line, until he is able to repeat it without a mistake.

    Let him be sure to be "letter perfect" in that verseso perfect that he will "see" even the capital letters and the punctuation marks when he recites it.

    Then let him stop for the day. The next day let him repeat the verse learned the day before, and then let him memorize a second verse in the same way, and just as perfectly. Then let him review the first and second verses together.

    This addition of the second verse to the first serves to weld the two together by association, and each review of them together serves to add a little bit to the weld, until they become joined in the mind as are "A, B, C.

    Continue this for say a month, adding a new verse each day and adding it to the verses preceding it. But constantly review them from beginning to end.

    He cannot review them too often. He will be able to have them flow along like the letters of the alphabet, from "A" to "Z" if he reviews properly and often enough. Then, if he can spare the time, let him begin the second month by learning two verses each day, and adding to those that precede them, with constant and faithful reviews. He will find that he can memorize two verses, in the second month, as easily as he did the one verse in the first month. His memory has been trained to this extent. And so, he may proceed from month to month, adding an extra verse to his daily task, until he is unable to spare the time for all the work, or until he feels satisfied with what he has accomplished.

    Let him use moderation and not try to become a phenomenon. Let him avoid overstraining. After he has memorized the entire poem, let him start with a new one, but not forget to revive the old one at frequent intervals. If he finds it impossible to add the necessary number of new verses, by reason of other occupation, etc. The exercise and review is more important than the mere addition of so many new verses. After he has acquired quite a large assortment of memorized selections, he will find it impossible to review them all at one time.

    But he should be sure to review them all at intervals, no matter how many days may elapse between each review. Summation of exercise: The student who has familiarized himself with the principles upon which memory depends, as given in the preceding chapters, will at once see that the three principles of attention, association and repetition are employed in the natural method herein recommended.

    Attention must be given in order to memorize each verse in the first place; association is employed in the relationship created between the old verses and the new ones; and repetition is employed by the frequent reviewing, which serves to deepen the memory impression each time the poem is repeated.

    Moreover, the principle of interest is invoked, in the gradual progress made, and the accomplishment of what at first seemed to be an impossible taskthe game element is thus supplied, which serves as an incentive.

    These combined principles render this method an ideal one, and it is not to be wondered that the race has so recognized it from the earliest times.

    Books, Articles, Ect: Noah Porter says: This is the rule that takes precedence of all others. It stands instead of a score of minor directions. Indeed it comprehends them all, and is the golden rule. The page should be read as if it were never to be seen a second time; the mental eye should be fixed as if there were no other object to think of; the memory should grasp the facts like a vise; the impressions should be distinctly and sharply received.


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